KEY to the execution of National pathogical services, Histopathology, Haematology and Microbiology are important elements that allow for better execution of this national duty
Histopathology is the diagnosis and the study of disease by an expert medical interpretation of cells and tissue samples. What this type of speciality determines is the cause of death by performing autopsies and it is an integral part to cancer management through staging and grading tumours.
Because of the fact that histopathology deals with the tissue diagnosis of disease, a tissue diagnosis can be made on the basis of biopsy material taken either from the patient in the ward or the operating theatre, or autopsy material.
There are four groups that can fall within histology. Firstly there are medically qualified histopathologists who carry out the microscopical examination and the diagnosis of the tissue samples. The second group are biomedical scientists, they carry out the scientific processes of techniques in order to produce the material that the histopathologist examines when making the diagnosis.
The third group are associate practitioners and medical laboratory assistants, they provide a variety of support activities both to the histopathologists and biomedical scientists and there are also some cases where they perform advanced roles in some areas which is traditionally covered by biomedical scientists.
Lastly, the fourth group are mortuary or anatomical pathology technicians, they are responsible for providing support to histopathologists during post mortems and they organise the mortuary service.
Histopathology is the branch of pathology, together with cytology, histology forms the pathology discipline of cellular pathology. Histopathologists need to have a broad-based knowledge and understanding of the pathological and clinical aspects of disease.
Blood is a bodily fluid in humans and animals that delivers the necessary substances (nutrients and oxygen) to cells and transports all metabolic waste products away from those same cells, a typical adult has the blood volume of approximately 5 litres.
Haematology including haemostasis and thrombosis is the study of blood as well as the blood-forming tissues. Most haematology laboratories are set in a healthcare setting, what these laboratories are responsible for is to monitor and diagnose diseases relating to blood and blood-forming organs.Biomedical scientists work in these laboratories and they perform an array of blood tests that assist in investigating the cellular elements of blood and the number of proteins it consists of including haemoglobin and clotting factors.
Generally haematological tests are performed on blood samples to diagnose diseases like; leukaemia, anaemia and abnormalities of blood coagulation. By working as a member of a team, a haematologist will be required to use their training to work in a variety of healthcare environments, and they may include; haematology, haemostasis or blood transfusion laboratories. Haematologists provide a clinical interpretation of laboratory data and morphology of blood and bone marrow specimens, they take an active part in every stage of patient management, from initial clinic visit, to laboratory assessment/diagnosis and finally to treatment.
Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms such as; bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi and protozoa. This study includes fundamental research on the biochemistry, physiology, cell biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of microorganisms, including the host response to these agents.
Microbes have existed on Earth for billions of years and were here decades before the existence of plants and animals. For the majority of its 4.5 billion year history, life on Earth was exclusively microbial.
Microbiologist help to prevent diagnose and control infections by identifying and characterising organisms. They are able to comment on effective treatment and can help to develop tests to diagnose infectious diseases.
Microbiologists also look at how microorganisms affect us and how we can exploit them. Their work can be relevant in a wide variety of settings including agriculture, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and the environment, although the majority of the work is carried out in hospitals.
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